Friday, September 20, 2019
Modes of Expression of Anger in Adolescents
Modes of Expression of Anger in Adolescents Introduction Aggression is a behavior that harms the security of the sufferers and causes pain or injury to others. (Townsend, 2006) Anger can be expressed in different ways such aswords, fists, weapons etc. which may result in bitter outcomes. Aggression is common in both of the genders regardless of their age. Adolescents are the vulnerable population in terms of aggression which can cause negative outcomes in their late life and results in poor adjustments and academic difficulties. Risk Behavior and Target Population Problems of aggressive behaviors in adolescents are growing seriously day by day (Olweus, 2001). The behaviors involve aggression against colleagues, teachers and friends(Astor, Pitner, Benbenishty, Meyer, 2002). Aggression is a risk health behavior in adolescents which can lead to depression and suicidal attempts(Herrero, EsteÃ ´vez, Musitu, 2006).Adolescents who suppress their anger are at high risk to be depressed and experience the feeling of hopelessness. Moreover, suicidal attempts are more serious in such adolescents. In contrast, adolescents who express their anger are at high risk to have family related problems (Olweus, 2005). The association between aggressive behaviors in adolescents and social health problems are related to family issues and schooling adjustment issues (MusituGarcÃâÃ ±Ã ´a, 2004). Moreover, the aggressive adolescents show lower level of empathy (Olweus, 2005). Aggressive adolescents strive for social recognition (RodrÃâÃ ±Ã ´guez, 2004).Desir e of becoming powerful in adolescents leads to disruptive behavior (Buelga, Ravenna, Musitu, Lila, 2006). Therefore it is very important to assess the mode of anger expression in adolescents to identify their health risk behaviors. The target population is adolescents aged between 10 to 19 years. (Add who definition of adolescents) Rationales A questionnaire has been developed in order to assess the level and expression of aggressionamong adolescents. This questionnaire will also help to identify the sex, age differences and ethnic background of these adolescents.Furthermore, it will give an understanding of the risk factors for developing aggressive behaviors which is one of the important steps in developing the strategies for prevention of aggression. Gender, age educational status and ethnic background are important aspects in order to know the vulnerability of adolescents for aggression.(Goldberg, Sweeney, Merenda Hughes, 1997) Therefore, it is important to study these demographic variables because each individual is different from another individual. Aggression causes continues depressive symptoms such as loneliness, self-esteem and externalizing behavior in victimized adolescents. (Prinstein, Boergers, Vernberg, 2001). Adolescents with experience of aggression burst out their anger either verbally or physically. If anger is not managed properly, it results in poor social skills with cognitive distortions (Nelson Finch, 2000).Furthermore; it also leads to physical problems such as migraine, headaches, ulcers in adolescents (Townsend, 2006). Purpose, Variables and Hypothesis The aim of this research is to identify the modes of expression of anger in adolescents in relation to physical, psychological and social health risks. The independent variable is anger whereas physical, psychological and social health problems are dependent variable The hypotheses to be tested in the study are as follows: There is an association between suppression of anger and physical and psychological health problems There is an association between improper expression of anger and social health problems (interference with relationships) The hypothesis will be tested by using chi square test of independence because the level of measurement is qualitative categorical in nature. Chi square procedure is employed to test hypothesis because it best suites with form of data and study question. It is used to see the association between the two qualitative variables which do not show any causal relationship. Thus the chi-square statistic is used to test the hypothesis of association between two groups. The assumptions for chi-square test are taken into consideration when the data are qualitative categorical, the observed number in each category can be compared to an expected number and all the expected counts are greater than or equal to five. (add blueman reference here) Operational Definition Anger Anger is a strong emotion that creates a pressure inside you in response to a harm or wrong act experienced by you. Suppression of anger When an individual feels anger and do not express it. Inappropriate expression of anger When an individual feels anger and express it by harming others. Physical health problems When the normal functioning of the body is affected due to uncontrolled emotions like anger and leads to headache, ulcers etc. Psychological health problems When an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to enjoy life and expression of emotions becomes maladaptive it leads to low self esteem and depression. Social health problems When an individual is unable to maintain healthy relationships with other people due to anger it leads to isolation. Questionnaire Analysis We filled the questionnaire as well as asked three other colleagues to fill the questionnaire and identified the difficulties which they faced during completing the form. One of the difficulties identified was problem in remembering the key for the questions on the second page as the key was written only on the first page and it was difficult to go back and forth to see the key. In order to resolve this problem, we will add the keys on the every page of the questionnaire. The Questionnaire Instructions Please read all the questions carefully, there is no right or wrong question. Use the key given below and circle the appropriate number which you think is most relevant to you. Demographic Data Age of respondent (in years): Birth order of the respondent: Gender of respondent: Class in which you read: Years of education: Number of family members: Number of siblings in the family: - ParentÃ¢â¬â¢s marital status: - Ethnicity of respondent: - Risk behavior data Key 1- Never, 2- Occasionally, 3- Often, 4- Frequently, 5- Always Do you get angry?12345 Do you express your anger?12345 Do you shout on others when you feel angry?12345 Do you beat others when you are angry?12345 Do you throw objects when you are angry?12345 Do you suppress your anger?12345 Do you feel headache when you are angry? 12345 Do you cry when you get angry?12345 Do you experience tremors when you get angry?12345 Do you isolate yourself when you get angry?12345 Do you share your feelings with your friends/siblings/parents when you are angry? 12345 Do you think recreational activities (music, games, outings etc.) can decrease your anger? 12345 Do you perform prayer when you get angry?12345 Do you feel bad about yourself when you get angry?12345 Do you feel relax after expression of your anger?12345 Do you continue your relationship with whom you expressed anger? 12345 Do you feel loss of control when you get angry?12345 Do you feel to take revenge from others?12345 Do you want to harm yourself?12345 Do you like fighting games and wrestling?12345 Do you say sorry to others after you express your anger to others? 12345 Do you accept sorry from others?12345 Do you think about the consequences of your actions? 12345 Do you reflect on your actions?12345 Do you feel difficulty in concentration due to anger?12345 Do your studies affect due to your anger?12345 References: Astor, R., Pitner, R. 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